Monday, February 16, 2009

Project Scope Management

Project Scope Management








Initiation


Formal authorization that the project exists

Recognition the project should continue into the next phase










Definition


Project Scope Management is a group of processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project.


Processes


There are following processes which are part of Project Scope Management.



  • Scope Planning

  • Scope Definition

  • Create WBS

  • Scope Verification

  • Scope Control


The term "Scope" may refer to



  • Product Scope: The features and functions that are to be included in a product or service.

  • Project Scope: The work that must be done in order to deliver a product with the specified features and functions.


Following sections describe each process along with Input, Output and Required Tools and Techniques.




Scope Planning



Scope planning is the process of progressively elaborating and documenting the project work (project scope) that produces the product of the project. Identifies the project objectives and deliverables and forms basis of agreement.


Scope Planning process starts in "Project Planning Phase" and uses the outputs of the Initiation Process.




(1) Scope Planning - Inputs



(1.1)Enterprise Environmental Factors: Enterprise environmental factors include items such as the organization.s culture, infrastructure, tools, human resources, personnel policies, and marketplace conditions that could affect how project scope is managed.


(1.2) Organizational Process Assets: Organizational process assets are the formal and informal policies, procedures, and guidelines that could impact how the project.s scope is managed. Those of particular interest to project scope planning include:



  • Organizational policies as they pertain to project scope planning and management


  • Organizational procedures related to project scope planning and management


  • Historical information about previous projects that may be located in the lessons learned knowledge base.



(1.3) Project Charter: Formally recognizes the existence of a project.


(1.4) Preliminary Project Scope Statement


(1.5) Project Management Plan







(2) Scope Planning - Tools & Techniques



(2.1) Expert Judgment: Expert judgment related to how equivalent projects have managed scope is used in developing the project scope management plan.


(2.2) Templates, Forms, Standards: Templates could include work breakdown structure templates, scope management
plan templates, and project scope change control forms.







(3) Scope Planning - Outputs:



(3.1) Scope Management Plan: Guidelines for how scope is to be managed and how scope changes are to be integrated into the project. It includes



  • A process that specifies how formal verification and acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained

  • A process that enables the creation of the WBS from the detailed project scope statement, and establishes how the WBS will be maintained and
    approved

  • A process to prepare a detailed project scope statement based upon the preliminary project scope statement

  • A clear description of how scope changes will be identified and classified.





Scope Definition



Scope definition involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to:



  • Improve the accuracy of cost,time and resource estimates.

  • Define a baseline for performance measurement and control.

  • Facilitate clear responsibility assignments.


Scope Definition process is a part of "Project Planning Phase".




(1) Scope Definition - Inputs



(1.1) Organizational Process Assets


(1.2) Project Charter : If a project charter is not used in a performing organization, then comparable information needs to be acquired or developed, and used to develop the detailed project scope statement.


(1.3) Preliminary Project Scope Statement: If a preliminary project scope statement is not used in a performing organization,
then comparable information, including the product scope description, needs to be acquired or developed and used to develop the detailed project scope statement.


(1.4) Project Scope Management Plan


(1.5) Approved Change Requests : Approved change requests can cause a change to project scope, project quality, estimated costs, or project schedule. Changes are often identified and approved while the work of the project is ongoing.







(2) Scope Definition - Tools & Techniques



(2.1) Product Analysis : Product analysis
includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, value analysis, and functional analysis.


(2.2) Alternatives Identification : Identifying alternatives is a technique used to generate different approaches to
execute and perform the work of the project.


(2.3) Expert Judgment: Each application area has experts who can be used to develop portions of the detailed project scope statement.


(2.3) Stakeholder Analysis: Stakeholder analysis identifies the influence and interests of the various
stakeholders and documents their needs, wants, and expectations. The analysis then selects, prioritizes, and quantifies the needs, wants, and expectations to create requirements.







(3) Scope Definition - Outputs



(3.1) Project Scope Statement : The project scope statement describes, in detail, the project.s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. The project scope statement also provides a common understanding of the project scope among all project stakeholders and describes the project.s major objectives.


The detailed project scope statement includes, either directly or by reference to other documents which includes following:



  • Project objectives

  • Product scope description

  • Project requirements

  • Project boundaries

  • Project deliverables

  • Product acceptance criteria

  • Project constraints & assumptions

  • Initial project organization

  • Initial defined risks

  • Schedule milestones

  • Fund limitation & Cost estimate

  • Project configuration management requirements

  • Project specifications

  • Approval requirements


(3.2) Requested Changes: Requested changes to the project management plan and its subsidiary plans may be developed during the Scope Definition process. Requested changes are processed for review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process.


(3.3) Project Scope Management Plan (Updates): The project scope management plan component of the project management plan
may need to be updated to include approved change requests resulting from the project.s Scope Definition process.



Create WBS


The WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team, to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project. The WBS subdivides the project work into smaller, more manageable pieces of work, with each descending level of the WBS representing an
increasingly detailed definition of the project work.


The planned work contained within the lowest-level WBS components, which are called work packages, can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled.


Create WBS process is a part of "Project Planning Phase".




(1) Create WBS - Inputs



(1.1) Organizational Process Assets


(1.2) Project Scope Statement


(1.3) Project Scope Management Plan


(1.4) Approved Change Requests







(2) Create WBS - Tools & Techniques



(2.1) Work Breakdown Structure Templates: Although each project is unique, a WBS from a previous project can often be used
as a template for a new project, since some projects will resemble another prior project to some extent.


(2.2) Decomposition : Decomposition is the subdivision of project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until the work and deliverables are defined to the work package level. The work package level is the lowest level in the WBS, and is the point at which the cost and schedule for the work can be reliably estimated.


Decomposition of the total project work generally involves the following activities:



  • Identifying the deliverables and related work

  • Structuring and organizing the WBS

  • Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower level detailed components

  • Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components

  • Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the work is necessary and Sufficient.







(3) Create WBS - Outputs



(3.1) Project Scope Statement (Updates) : If approved change requests result from the Create WBS process, then the project
scope statement is updated to include those approved changes.


(3.2) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS):


BWS is a graphical representation of the hierarchy of the project. The WBS template can be reused across projects. WBS forces the project team to think through all the levels of the project. If a task is not in the WBS, then it is not part of the project.



  • WBS is a grouping of project components that organizes and defines the total scope of the project.

  • WBS is used to confirm understanding of the project scope.

  • WBS simplifies a complex project and using WBS it becomes easy to estimate accurate duration, cost, budget, resources.


8/80 rule for WBS: No task should be less than 8 hours or more than 80 hours.


(3.3) WBS Dictionary: The document generated by the Create WBS process that supports the WBS is called the WBS dictionary and is a companion document to the WBS. The detailed content of the components contained in a WBS, including work packages and control accounts, can be described in the WBS dictionary.


(3.4) Scope Baseline: The approved detailed project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary are the scope baseline for the project.


(3.5) Project Scope Management Plan (Updates): If approved change requests result from the Create WBS process, then the project scope management plan may need to be updated to include approved changes.


(3.6) Requested Changes: Requested changes to the project scope statement and its components may be generated from the Create WBS process, and are processed for review and approval through the integrated change control process.





Scope Verification



This is the process of obtaining formal acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders.It requires reviewing work products and results to ensure that all are completed correctly and satisfactorily.


The Scope Verification is the process in which the project customer formally accepts the project deliverables. Scope Verification happens at the end of each phase. It is the customer feedback on a detailed basis. While Scope Verification focuses on customer acceptance, Quality Control focuses on correctness of work.


Scope Verification process is a part of "Project Controlling Phase".




(1) Scope Verification - Inputs



(1.1) Project Scope Statement: The project scope statement includes the product scope description that describes the project.s product to be reviewed and the product acceptance criteria.


(1.2) WBS Dictionary : The WBS dictionary is a component of the detailed project scope definition, and is used to verify that the deliverables being produced and accepted are included in the approved project scope.


(1.3) Project Scope Management Plan


(1.4) Deliverables







(2) Scope Verification - Tools & Techniques



(2.1) Inspection: This includes activities, such as measuring, examining, and testing, undertaken to determine whether results conform to requirements. There are following two ways to perform inspections.



  • Delhpi Technique: This method is used to obtain expert opinion on technical issues, the required scope or risk involved. A request is sent to the experts and their returned responses are compiled and then sent back to them for further review to get consensus.

  • Management by Objective(MBO): is a management philosophy with three objectives -

    • Establish unambiguous and realistic objectives

    • Periodically Evaluate if objectives are being met

    • Take corrective actions.


    MBO works only if management supports it.







(3) Scope Verification - Outputs



(3.1) Accepted Deliverables : The Scope Verification process documents those completed deliverables that have
been accepted by the client.


(3.2) Requested Changes: Requested changes may be generated from the Scope Verification process, and are processed for review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process.


(3.3) Recommended Corrective Actions





Scope Control



Project Scope Control includes :



  • Influencing the factors which create scope changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon.

  • Determining that a scope change has occurred.

  • Managing the actual changes when they occur.

  • The system includes the paperwork, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes.


Scope change control process is a part of "Project Controlling Phase".




(1) Scope Control - Inputs



(1.1) Project Scope Statement: The project scope statement includes the product scope description along with its associated WBS and WBS dictionary that describes the project.s product to be reviewed and the product acceptance criteria.


(1.2) Work Breakdown Structure


(1.3) WBS Dictionary: The WBS dictionary is a component of the detailed project scope definition, and is used to verify that the deliverables being produced and accepted are included in the approved project scope.


(1.4) Project Scope Management Plan


(1.5) Performance Reports: Performance reports provide information on project work performance, such as interim deliverables that have been completed.


(1.6) Approved Change Requests: An approved change request impacting project scope is any modification to the agreed-upon project scope baseline, as defined by the approved project scope statement, WBS, and WBS dictionary.


(1.7) Work Performance Information







(2) Scope Control - Tools & Techniques



(2.1) Change Control System: Defines procedures for changing project scope.


(2.2) Variance Analysis: Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation.


(2.3) Replanning: These approved change requests can cause updates to components of the project management plan.


(2.4) Configuration Management System: A formal configuration management system provides procedures
for the status of the deliverables, and assures that requested changes to the project scope and product scope are thoroughly considered and documented before being processed through the Integrated Change Control process.







(3) Scope Control - Outputs



(3.1) Project Scope Statement (Updates): If the approved change requests have an effect upon the project scope, then the
project scope statement is revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes.


(3.2) Work Breakdown Structure (Updates) : If the approved change requests have an effect upon the project scope, then the
WBS is revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes.


(3.3) WBS Dictionary (Updates) : If the approved change requests have an effect upon the project scope, then the WBS dictionary is revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes.


(3.4) Scope Baseline (Updates):


(3.5) Requested Changes: The results of project scope control can generate requested changes, which are processed for review and disposition according to the project Integrated Change Control process.


(3.6) Recommended Corrective Action: A recommended corrective action is any step recommended to bring expected future project performance in line with the project management plan and project scope statement.


(3.7) Organizational Process Assets (Updates): The causes of variances, the reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and
other types of lessons learned from project scope change control are documented and updated in the historical database of the organizational process assets.


(3.8) Project Management Plan (Updates): If the approved change requests have an effect on the project scope, then the
corresponding component documents and cost baseline, and schedule baselines of the project management plan, are revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes.







Last Moment Revision:



  • Scope : The sum of the products and services to be provided in a project.


  • Product Scope: The features and functions that are to be included in a product or service.


  • Project Scope: The work that must be done in order to deliver a product with the specified features and functions.


  • Scope Change: Any change to the project scope.


  • Scope Change Control: Controlling changes to project scope.


  • Scope Definition: Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control.


  • Scope Planning: Developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, the major deliverables, and the project objectives.


  • Scope Management: A plan which describes how project scope will be managed and how.


  • Scope Statement: A documented description of the project as to its output, approach, and content. (What is being produced?, How is it being produced?, and What is included?)


  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): A deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements which organizes and defines the total scope of the project.


  • Work Package: A deliverable at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure. A work package may be divided into activities.


  • Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS): Provides a hierarchically organized depiction of the project organization arranged so that the work packages can be related to the performing organizational units.


  • Bill of Materials (BOM): Presents a hierarchical tabulation of the physical assemblies, subassemblies, and components needed to fabricate a manufactured product.


  • Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS): A hierarchically organized depiction of the identified project risks arranged by risk category.


  • Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS): A hierarchically organized depiction of the resources by type to be used on the project.


  • WBS Dictionary : The WBS dictionary is a component of the detailed project scope definition, and is used to verify that the deliverables being produced and accepted are included in the approved project scope.


  • 8/80 rule for WBS: No task should be less than 8 hours or more than 80 hours.


  • Delhpi Technique: This method is used to obtain expert opinion on technical issues, the required scope or risk involved. A request is sent to the experts and their returned responses are compiled and then sent back to them for further review to get consensus.


  • Management by Objective(MBO): is a management philosophy with three objectives



2 comments:

  1. Nice post. I enjoy reading your article. I found new ideas and very good information. I will come back for the next post. Thank you.

    John
    www.imarksweb.org

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete